Prostate gland enlargement is a common condition as men get older. Also called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate gland enlargement can cause bothersome urinary symptoms. Untreated, prostate gland enlargement can block the flow of urine out of the bladder and cause bladder, urinary tract or kidney problems.
The prostate gland is located beneath your bladder. The tube that transports urine from the bladder out of your penis (urethra) passes through the center of the prostate. When the prostate enlarges, it begins to block urine flow.
Most men have continued prostate growth throughout life. In many men, this continued growth enlarges the prostate enough to cause urinary symptoms or to significantly block urine flow.
It isn’t entirely clear what causes the prostate to enlarge. However, it might be due to changes in the balance of sex hormones as men grow older.
The severity of symptoms in people who have prostate gland enlargement varies, but symptoms tend to gradually worsen over time. Common signs and symptoms of BPH include:
- Frequent or urgent need to urinate
- Increased frequency of urination at night (nocturia)
- Difficulty starting urination
- Weak urine stream or a stream that stops and starts
- Dribbling at the end of urination
- Straining while urinating
- Inability to completely empty the bladder
Less common signs and symptoms include:
- Urinary tract infection
- Inability to urinate
- Blood in the urine
Risk factors for prostate gland enlargement include:
- Prostate gland enlargement rarely causes signs and symptoms in men younger than age 40. About one-third of men experience moderate to severe symptoms by age 60, and about half do so by age 80.
- Family history.Having a blood relative, such as a father or brother, with prostate problems means you’re more likely to have problems.
- Ethnic background.Prostate enlargement is less common in Asian men than in white and black men. Black men might experience symptoms at a younger age than white men.
- Diabetes and heart disease.Studies show that diabetes, as well as heart disease and use of beta blockers, might increase the risk of BPH.
- Obesity increases the risk of BPH, while exercise can lower your risk.
Complications of enlarged prostate can include:
- Sudden inability to urinate (urinary retention).You might need to have a tube (catheter) inserted into your bladder to drain the urine. Some men with an enlarged prostate need surgery to relieve urinary retention.
- Urinary tract infections (UTIs).Inability to fully empty the bladder can increase the risk of infection in your urinary tract. If UTIs occur frequently, you might need surgery to remove part of the prostate.
- Bladder stones.These are generally caused by an inability to completely empty the bladder. Bladder stones can cause infection, bladder irritation, blood in the urine and obstruction of urine flow.
- Bladder damage.A bladder that hasn’t emptied completely can stretch and weaken over time. As a result, the muscular wall of the bladder no longer contracts properly, making it harder to fully empty your bladder.
- Kidney damage.Pressure in the bladder from urinary retention can directly damage the kidneys or allow bladder infections to reach the kidneys.
Homoeopathic medicines are very effective and they decreasing the size of the prostate gland in the grade 1 and 2 BPH.